Published in print: 20 January 2001, Published online: 2001; updated, 31 January 2014
b Helsinki, March 22, 1918; d Helsinki, March 13, 1980). Finnish composer. He studied composition with Madetoja, Palmgren and Ranta at the Sibelius Academy, Helsinki (1937–40) and musicology at Helsinki University (MA 1941). Appointments followed with the music staff of the Finnish Broadcasting Company (1943–61), as music critic for the newspaper Uusi Suomi (1943–72) and as artistic director of the Finnish National Opera (1960–69). In 1967 he joined the Sibelius Academy as lecturer in the history of opera.