Published in print:20 January 2001, Published online:2001; updated, 31 January 2014; updated, 23 February 2011
(b Uusikaarlepyy, Nov 24, 1911; d Helsinki, April 24, 2006). Finnish composer. He studied musicology with Ilmari Krohn and literature with Yrjö Hirn at Helsinki University (1931–3) and attended the Helsinki Conservatory (1931–8) as a pupil of Erik Furuhjelm and Bengt Carlson (composition) and Ilmari Hannikainen (piano). In addition, he studied composition with Heinz Tiessen at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (1937–9, 1942–3) and 12-note techniques with Wladimir Vogel in Ascona (1954).