Published in print: 20 January 2001, Published online: 2001; updated, 31 January 2014
(b Ljugarn, Gotland, Sweden, June 17, 1916; d Ljugarn, June 27, 1999). Finnish composer. From 1932 to 1941 he studied with Bengt Carlson (composition), Leo Funtek (orchestration) and Martti Paavola (piano) at the Helsinki Conservatory (from 1939 the Sibelius Academy). After establishing himself as a composer with the first two symphonies (1946 and 1947), both reflecting the atrocities of war, he continued his studies in 1949 with Copland at Tanglewood.